Shimla Agreement: July 2, 1972Shimla: What is it? The Shimla Agreement was signed on 2 July 1972 by Indira Gandhi, then Indian Prime Minister, and by Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, after the 1971 India-Pakistan War that liberated East Pakistan and led to the creation of Bangladesh. Among them, India and Pakistan have decided to abandon the conflict of the past and focus on building lasting friendship, peace and cooperation between them. The Shimla Agreement: Key Principles The Shimla Agreement contains a series of principles agreed by both India and Pakistan, which emphasize respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, sovereign equality, non-interference in the internal affairs of the other, respect for political independence and unity of the other, and disregard for hostile propaganda. The principles of the Shimla Agreement are:- Mutual commitment to peacefully resolve all issues through direct bilateral approaches.- Build the basis of a cooperative relationship with an emphasis on contacts.- Maintain the inviolability of the line of control in Jammu and Kashmir. Shimla agreement: main features 1. India and Pakistan have decided to put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have weighed on their relations in the past and to commit to a friendly and harmonious relationship to establish lasting peace in the subcontinent. 2. Both India and Pakistan agreed that relations between the two countries were governed by the principles of the United Nations Charter. 3. The two countries have decided to settle their differences by peaceful means, bilateral means or other means which they have agreed to. 4.
Both India and Pakistan agreed to respect the line of control in Jammu and Kashmir, without undermining the recognized position of both sides. They also agreed that neither unilateral attempts at change would be sought, regardless of reciprocal differences and legal interpretations. 5. In addition, both nations agreed not to resort to threat or violence in violation of this line. (iii) Withdrawals will begin on the effective date of this agreement and will be concluded within 30 days.  As part of this agreement, the two nations, India and Pakistan, had agreed to refrain from any threat and violence, in violation of the line of control in Jammu and Kashmir. For pre-and-postiches: has the Simla agreement – origin, impact and results been successful? The agreement did not prevent relations between the two countries from deteriorating until the armed conflict, the last time during the 1999 Kargil war.